作者 主题: TrueOS 和 Linux 之间的五大差异 (作者:Joshua Smith)  (阅读 2273 次)

离线 jingyue

  • 自由发言用户
  • 注册用户
  • **
  • 帖子: 938
TrueOS 和 Linux 之间的五大差异,(谷歌机器翻译,有误差,)

JoshDW19 -
2018年2月23日

想到使用GUI的开源操作系统时,想到什么?许多人可能会说“Linux”,考虑到所有的Linux发行版都是开源的,而且大多数都带有预配置的图形界面。然而,很多人不知道的是,有一种纯粹的BSD替代Linux的命名为TrueOS。

TrueOS是一个基于FreeBSD的开源操作系统(以前称为PC-BSD),紧随Research Unix和FreeBSD的直接后裔。 TrueOS采用FreeBSD操作系统并创建一个图形操作系统,以方便日常家庭和工作使用。 TrueOS标配Lumina桌面环境,核心桌面实用程序,ZFS文件系统和无缝图形包管理器。这创建了一个真正独特的开源体验。想知道更多?请继续阅读,了解TrueOS和Linux之间的五大差异。

在我们加入之前,我要求你记住一件事。请避免关于本文讨论的不同操作系统的任何可恶的或贬低的评论。 Linux,FreeBSD和TrueOS本身都是优秀的开源软件,我们都可以在池塘的任何一边进行关于建设性批评的讨论。

原因1.研究Unix下的TrueOS&FreeBSD

很多人读过这篇文章的人都不熟悉FreeBSD,并且有很多我们可以谈论的历史。相反,我们简单地强调一下FreeBSD和Linux历史上的基本差异。

FreeBSD被设计为一个完整的封装操作系统,并直接从Research Unix版本8开始。Research Unix的根源可以追溯到1969年创建的Unix。当FreeBSD操作系统安装时,它包括内核,用户区,以及您希望使用该系统所需的所有实用程序。 FreeBSD完全通过POSIX认证,确保软件跨BSD变体和其他类Unix操作系统(如Solaris)的可移植性。

另一方面,Linux发行版由两个主要部分组成:由Linus Torvalds维护的Linux内核和由自由软件基金会赞助的GNU userland社区项目。当人们提到Linux时,他们通常指的是构成Linux发行版的这两个部分。 Linux发行版主要是POSIX兼容的。这允许FreeBSD和Linux之间的一些可移植性,但“Linux”不像FreeBSD那样得到POSIX认证。

如果你正在寻找一种基于BSD的,研究Unix的继续 - FreeBSD和TrueOS是两个很棒的选择。

原因2:OpenRC,不systemd

我个人不同意一段时间内systemd的实现,虽然承认systemd被创建有正当理由。在相对较短的生命周期中,systemd已经看到了巨大的范围蔓延,并且由于这个范围的蔓延,systemd现在比Linux内核本身更大。这是Linux社区常见的争论点,一些人认为这与Unix类似的做法背道而驰。

TrueOS使用一种名为OpenRC的现代,基于依赖关系的init系统。 OpenRC旨在完成一件事:作为初始系统。 OpenRC设计小巧,便携,使用简单。 OpenRC还引入了现代功能,以挑战类Unix系统中的现状。像并行服务启动,集中配置文件,自动服务重新生成等功能等等。

利用OpenRC的并行服务启动功能,TrueOS可以非常快速地启动并与systemd的启动时间相媲美。 OpenRC最好的特性之一是能够作为一个改进的初始系统,而不会不必要地膨胀系统。

原因3:安全

TrueOS集成了许多安全功能,可让您保持系统安全。我们并不是认为我们的安全性比Linux发行版好,但我们已经将这些安全特性添加到了TrueOS的核心中。

TrueOS集成了Tor(The Onion Router)模式,类似于Kali Linux中使用的Tor浏览器。只需一次点击,TrueOS就可以在几秒钟内自动将您的流量路由到Tor,从而进一步推进。实施Tor模式后,您的流量将在系统级别重新路由,这意味着您可以使用任何您需要的Web浏览器。

隐形用户会话为您提供一个可支持的帐户,以在系统上本地运行。创建一个临时主目录,然后在您退出系统时将其擦除,不会留下任何面包屑。基于用例,管理员可以启用或禁用隐身会话。

Personacrypt提供加密和便携式主目录,可以在不同的TrueOS系统之间使用。新创建的用户可以指定是否在USB驱动器上使用Personacrypt。当用户注销系统时,Personacrypt会加密附加的拇指驱动器。当用户想要登录到他们的可移动加密主目录时,他们只需连接他们的Personacrypt驱动器并输入密码。系统将解密驱动器并加载主目录。此功能是完全可选的,但增加了许多类Unix操作系统中不具备的额外安全级别。

原因4.许可

GPL许可证有助于防止软件变得专有。不幸的是,它也变得错综复杂,难以解释哪些因素会使商业使用变得困难。 TrueOS和FreeBSD都使用商业友好的BSD许可证。 BSD许可证遵循真正开放的模式,同时仍保护软件作者不承担任何责任。基本上,您可以免费获得该软件并根据自己的需要做任何事情,但无法控告作者使用该软件造成的任何类型的损失。 BSD许可证不是“copyleft”许可证,GPL的一些支持者批评他们没有严格遵守软件开放源代码。

原因5.熟悉

这与TrueOS和Linux之间的通用性没有太大区别。使用TrueOS时,您可以熟悉终端或使用GUI,因为其感觉与其他类Unix操作系统非常相似。更不用说,因为Linux主要是符合POSIX标准的,所以无论您使用Linux发行版还是TrueOS,许多命令行实用程序的工作原理都是一样的。更进一步,您可以自定义BSD授权的桌面管理器Lumina Desktop,以创建类似于其他操作系统的桌面体验。

TrueOS还可以访问超过29,000个预编译的软件包(应用程序)以及FreeBSD ports树中可用的大量端口库。由于两个内核之间的相似性,将软件从Linux移植到TrueOS也很容易。

最后的话

TrueOS和FreeBSD的核心是研究Unix的后代,它继承了原始Unix开发人员所创立的传统和理念。这并不是说我们比Linux好,但我们是不同的。我们在TrueOS项目中的许多人每年都会参加Linux会议,并且喜欢与Linux开发人员,贡献者和用户进行合作。我们喜欢倾听Linux社区经常讨论的新想法。最终,虽然TrueOS和Linux的特性有所不同,但我喜欢认为我们有更多共同点而不是不同之处。

想给TrueOS一个镜头?前往我们的下载页面并获取最新映像的副本。 TrueOS项目引以为豪的是拥有一个友善的论坛社区,他们总是乐于参与并提供帮助。还有一个用于实时通信和帮助的电报通道。您是否同意我在TrueOS和Linux之间列出的差异?请在下面的评论中告诉我。

关于作者:Joshua Smith是一位数字营销专家和志愿者,与TrueOS项目合作。 Joshua与TrueOS项目合作了六年多,并通过宣传,市场营销和在会议上发表意见。

Facebook评论


原文链接 https://www.kompulsa.com/2018/02/23/5-differences-trueos-linux/


5 Differences Between TrueOS & Linux

When thinking of Open Source operating systems with a GUI, what comes to mind? Many may say “Linux”, considering all Linux distributions are Open Source and most come with a pre-configured graphical interface. However, what many don’t know is that there is a pure BSD alternative to Linux named TrueOS.

TrueOS is a FreeBSD-based, Open Source operating system (formerly named PC-BSD) that closely follows the direct descendant of Research Unix, FreeBSD. TrueOS takes the FreeBSD operating system and creates a graphical operating system built for easy everyday home and work use. TrueOS comes standard with the Lumina Desktop environment, core desktop utilities, the ZFS file system, and a seamless graphical package manager. This creates a truly unique Open Source experience. Want to know more? Keep reading below and find out the five differences between TrueOS and Linux.

Before we jump in, I ask that you keep one thing in mind. Please avoid any hateful or disparaging remarks about the different operating systems discussed in this article. Linux, FreeBSD, and TrueOS are all excellent pieces of Open Source software in their own right, and we can all keep the conversation about constructive criticism on either side of the pond.

Reason 1. TrueOS & FreeBSD Descended From Research Unix

Chances are many of you reading this article are not familiar with FreeBSD, and there’s quite a bit of history that we could talk about. Instead, let’s briefly highlight the fundamental differences seen in the history of FreeBSD and Linux.

FreeBSD was designed to be a complete and encapsulated operating system and directly descended from Research Unix version 8. The roots of Research Unix reach back to the creation of Unix in 1969. When the FreeBSD operating system is installed, it includes the kernel, the userland, and all the utilities necessary for you to use the system however you wish. FreeBSD is fully POSIX certified, which ensures the portability of software across BSD variants and other Unix-like operating systems, such as Solaris.

On the other hand, A Linux distribution is made up of two main pieces: the Linux kernel maintained by Linus Torvalds and the GNU userland community project that is sponsored by the Free Software Foundation. When people refer to Linux, they are often referring to both of these pieces that make up a Linux distribution. Linux distributions are mostly POSIX compliant. This allows some portability between FreeBSD and Linux, but “Linux” is not POSIX certified like FreeBSD.

If you’re looking for a BSD-based, pure continuation of Research Unix — FreeBSD and TrueOS are two fantastic choices.

Reason 2: OpenRC, not systemd

I’ve personally disagreed with the implementation of systemd for a while, although admittedly there were legitimate reasons for systemd being created. During its relatively short lifetime, systemd has seen an enormous amount of scope creep, and due to this scope creep, systemd is now larger than the Linux kernel itself. This is a routine point of contention in the Linux communities, with some arguing this is a departure from the Unix-like way of doing things.

TrueOS uses a modern, dependency-based init system called OpenRC. OpenRC is designed to do one thing well: act as an init system. OpenRC is designed to be small, portable, and simple to use. OpenRC also introduces modern features that challenge the status quo in Unix-like systems. Features like parallel service startup, a centralized configuration file, automatic service respawning, and much more.

Utilizing OpenRC’s parallel service startup allows TrueOS to boot incredibly fast and rivals the boot time of systemd. One of the best traits of OpenRC is the ability to function as an improved init system without bloating the system unnecessarily.

Reason 3: Security

TrueOS has integrated a host of security features that allow you to keep your system safe and secure. We aren’t arguing our security is better than Linux distributions, but simply that we have added these security features into the core of TrueOS.

TrueOS integrates a Tor (The Onion Router) mode similar to the Tor browser used in Kali Linux. TrueOS takes it one step further by automatically routing your traffic through Tor in a matter of seconds with a single click. After implementing Tor mode, your traffic is re-routed at a system level meaning you can use whatever web browser you please.

Stealth user sessions give you a disposable account to run locally on the system. A temporary home directory is created and then subsequently wiped when you log out of the system, leaving no breadcrumbs behind. Stealth sessions can be enabled or disabled by the administrator based on the use case.

Personacrypt offers an encrypted and portable home directory which can be used between different TrueOS systems. Newly created users can specify whether or not to use Personacrypt on a USB drive. When the user logs out of the system, Personacrypt encrypts the attached thumb drive. When a user wants to log in to their portable encrypted home directory, they just connect their Personacrypt drive and enter a password. The system will then decrypt the drive and load the home directory. This feature is completely optional but adds an extra level of security not available in many Unix-like operating systems.

Reason 4. Licensing

The GPL license serves an important purpose in keeping software from becoming proprietary. Unfortunately, it has also become convoluted and difficult to interpret which can make business use difficult. TrueOS and FreeBSD both use the business-friendly BSD licenses. The BSD license follows a truly open model while still protecting the author of the software from any liability. Basically, you can have the software for free and do whatever you want with it but you can’t sue the author for any type of losses incurred by using the software. The BSD license is not a “copyleft” license, which has been criticized by some proponents of the GPL for not being strict enough on keeping software Open Source.

Reason 5. Familiarity

This isn’t as much of a difference as it is a commonality between TrueOS and Linux. When using TrueOS, you’ll be comfortable with the terminal or using the GUI because the feel is very similar to other Unix-like operating systems. Not to mention, since Linux is mostly POSIX compliant, many command line utilities work the same whether you’re using a Linux distribution or TrueOS. Taking things one step further, you can customize our BSD-licensed desktop manager, Lumina Desktop, to create a desktop experience similar to other operating systems.

TrueOS also has access to over 29,000 pre-compiled packages (applications) and a vast library of ports that are available in the FreeBSD ports tree. Because of the similarities between the two kernels, it’s also easy to port software from Linux to TrueOS.

The Final Word

At their core, TrueOS and FreeBSD are Research Unix descendants that continue to carry on the legacy and philosophy established by the original Unix developers. This isn’t to say that we’re better than Linux, but we are different. Many of us here at the TrueOS project attend Linux conferences every year and enjoy collaborating with Linux developers, contributors, and users. We love to listen to fresh ideas that are frequently discussed in the Linux community. Ultimately, while there are characteristics that differ between TrueOS and Linux, I like to think we have more in common than different.

Want to give TrueOS a shot? Head over to our download page and grab a copy of the latest image. The TrueOS Project prides itself on having a friendly forum community that is always willing to pitch in and help. There’s also a Telegram channel for real-time communication and help. Do you agree with the differences I listed between TrueOS and Linux? Let me know in the comments below.

About the Author: Joshua Smith is a Digital Marketing Specialist and a volunteer working with the TrueOS Project. Joshua has worked with the TrueOS project for over six years and contributes through advocacy, marketing, and speaking at conferences.

 
Facebook Comments

« 最后编辑时间: 三月 04, 2018, 07:13:04 pm 作者 jingyue »