作者 主题: 滚动版本和BSD  (阅读 992 次)

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滚动版本和BSD
« 于: 一月 28, 2018, 12:07:48 am »
https://distrowatch.com/weekly.php?issue=20170821#qa

滚动版本和BSD (来自谷歌翻译,有误差,仅供参考,)

滚动与不同的操作系统问:我一直在使用像Manjaro / Arch的滚动版本,并且喜欢它们。我正在考虑尝试新的BSD,并想知道是否有相当于BSD的滚动版本?

DistroWatch的答案:BSD(FreeBSD,NetBSD和OpenBSD)的流行风格与大多数Linux发行版有所不同,这意味着滚动发行版的Linux发行版不会提供与BSD直接的苹果与苹果的比较。大多数Linux发行版的组织方式意味着系统上的所有软件包都是固定的或者是滚动的。如果您运行固定版本的Linux发行版,那么您的内核,桌面环境和生产力套件通常都设置为固定版本。而且,如果你运行一个滚动版本的Linux发行版,那么你的内核,桌面和生产力软件都会定期升级。有一些例外,但是大多数Linux发行版都是完全固定的,或者完全滚动,因为所有的软件包在相同策略下升级(或不升级)。

BSD将其核心系统(内核,编译器和核心命令行工具)与为操作系统打包的软件分开。这意味着,使用默认配置,大多数BSD将提供一个固定的,稳定的操作系统。但是,我们安装在BSD之上的软件包通常会得到定期升级。这意味着内核,驱动程序和一些必要的工具是稳定的,而我们在BSD上运行的桌面软件和服务通常是以滚动(或半滚动)发布方式最新的。

虽然BSD的默认行为通常是在稳定更新的应用程序下提供稳定,固定的内核,但我们可以调整系统的行为。每个主要的BSD项目都有一个开发分支(也称为“当前”分支)以及一个稳定分支(有时称为“分发”分支)。这意味着,如果我们真的想要,我们可以建立一个BSD安装,使核心操作系统及其软件包不断更新。除非我们想尝试最新的驱动程序或参与开发工作,否则这样做风险更大,可能也不是什么好处,但可以选择。

基于FreeBSD的TrueOS项目是不寻常的,因为核心系统和我们可以安装的软件包都是为了定期更新而设计的。 TrueOS以FreeBSD开发分支为核心,提供全面的滚动或半滚动升级包。如果你真的想要处于BSD开发的前沿,那么TrueOS可能是你体验BSD风格的最佳机会。 TrueOS还具有图形化系统安装程序的优点,使新手可以轻松地尝试操作系统。

在决定是否要运行完整版本的BSD系统或者使用最新软件包的固定版本之前,需要考虑另一条信息。由于BSD将其核心操作系统与第三方软件分开,所以核心系统保持相对较小。有可能(可以这么说)预计运行稳定分支的BSD用户将会半定期地升级操作系统的核心,或者每年升级一次。与升级整个GNU / Linux发行版相比,基本系统的升级通常是快速和相对无痛的。当大多数Linux发行版升级时,系统上的所有软件包将作为一个整体升级。有了BSD,核心系统和软件包的分离意味着小核心可以快速更新到最新的稳定版本。稳定版本之间的这种跨越式的转变比运行最新的开发快照风险更小,同时仍然保持基本系统与新功能的一致性。

在选择BSD的风格进行尝试之前,我建议阅读有关升级每个项目的文档,以更好地了解每个操作系统的维护方式。下面是每个项目的相关文档:OpenBSD的风格和升级OpenBSD;升级FreeBSD;升级NetBSD;并更新TrueOS。

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更多的答案可以在我们的问题和解答存档中找到:https://distrowatch.com/qanda.php

原文链接 https://distrowatch.com/weekly.php?issue=20170821#qa

原文:

Rolling releases and BSD

Rolling-with-a-different-operating-system asks: I've been using rolling releases like Manjaro/Arch for a while now and love them. I'm thinking of trying BSD for something new and wondering if there is an equivalent BSD rolling release?

DistroWatch answers: The popular flavours of BSD (FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD) are structured a bit differently than most Linux distributions, which means rolling release Linux distributions will not offer a direct apples-to-apples comparison with the BSDs. Most Linux distributions are organized in a way that means all the various packages on the system are either fixed or rolling. If you run a fixed release Linux distribution then your kernel, desktop environment and productivity suite are usually all set at a fixed version. And, if you run a rolling release Linux distribution, then your kernel, desktop and productivity software all get regular upgrades. There are a few exceptions, but most Linux distributions are either entirely fixed or entirely rolling as all packages are upgraded (or not) under the same policy.

The BSDs separate their core systems (kernel, compiler and core command line tools) from the software which is packaged for the operating system. This means, with the default configuration, most BSDs will offer a fixed, stable operating system. However, the packages which we install on top of the BSDs typically get regular upgrades. This means the kernel, drivers and some necessary tools are stable while the desktop software and services we run on the BSDs are usually up to date in a rolling (or semi-rolling) release manner.

While the default behaviour of the BSDs is usually to provide a stable, fixed core under steadily updated applications, we can adjust the system to behave differently. Each of the major BSD projects has a development branch (also known as a "-current" branch) as well as a stable branch (sometimes called a "-release" branch). This means that if we really want to, we can set up a BSD installation so that both the core operating system and its packages are constantly updating. This is a bit more risky and probably not a benefit unless we want to try out the latest drivers or engage in development efforts, but the option is there.

The TrueOS project, which is based on FreeBSD, is unusual in that both the core system and the packages we can install on it are designed to receive regular updates. TrueOS uses FreeBSD's development branch at its core and offers either full rolling or semi-rolling package upgrades. If you really want to be on the cutting edge of BSD development then TrueOS is probably your best chance to experience a rolling release BSD flavour. TrueOS also has the benefit of featuring a graphical system installer which makes it fairly easy for newcomers to try the operating system.

Before you decide whether you want to run a completely rolling release BSD system or a fixed release with up to date packages, there is another piece of information to consider. Because the BSDs separate their core operating system from third-party software, the core system remains relatively small. It is possible (one might say expected) that BSD users running a stable branch will upgrade the core of the operating system on a semi-regular basis, perhaps once per year. This upgrade of the base system is usually quick and relatively painless when compared next to upgrading the entirety of a GNU/Linux distribution. When most Linux distributions upgrade, all the packages on the system are upgraded as a whole. With the BSDs, the separation of core system and packages means the small core can be updated quickly to the latest, stable release. This leap frogging between stable versions is less risky than running the latest development snapshots while still keeping the base system fairly to date with new features.

Before selecting a flavour of BSD to try, I recommend reading the documentation on upgrading each project to get a better feel for how each operating system is maintained. Here is some relevant documentation for each project: OpenBSD flavours and upgrading OpenBSD; upgrading FreeBSD; upgrading NetBSD; and updating TrueOS.

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More answers can be found in our Questions and Answers archive.