作者 主题: UNIX 操作系统 TrueOS(基于FreeBSD 12.0-CURRENT)最新稳定版(2018年03月28日),  (阅读 20454 次)

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基于 FreeBSD 12.0-CURRENT,简体中文 Lumina 1.4.2 桌面,ipfw 防火墙,

官方下载:

https://download.trueos.org/
https://download.trueos.org/master/amd64/
             
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-DVD.iso                   28-Mar-2018 21:45          2611400704 (光盘镜像)
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-DVD.iso.md5               28-Mar-2018 21:45                  33
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-DVD.iso.sha256            28-Mar-2018 21:46                  65
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-DVD.iso.sig               29-Mar-2018 22:04                 543(光盘镜像的官方PGP签名)
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-DVD.iso.torrent           28-Mar-2018 21:46              199538(P2P 种子下载)
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-USB.img                   28-Mar-2018 21:48          2811118080(U 盘镜像)
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-USB.img.md5               28-Mar-2018 21:48                  33
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-USB.img.sha256            28-Mar-2018 21:49                  65
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-USB.img.sig               29-Mar-2018 22:04                 543
TrueOS-Desktop-18.03-x64-USB.img.torrent           28-Mar-2018 21:49              214778


TrueOS-Desktop-18.03 发行版的官方说明:
                                                                        https://www.trueos.org/blog/trueos-stable-18-03-release/

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

TrueOS-Desktop-17.12 发行版的官方说明:
                                                                        https://www.trueos.org/blog/trueos-17-12-release/

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

distrowatch.com 网站 TrueOS 相关信息:

                             https://distrowatch.com/?newsid=10156
                             https://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=trueos

官方网站:https://www.trueos.org/
官方下载:https://www.trueos.org/downloads/
官方微博:https://www.trueos.org/blog/
用户指南:https://www.trueos.org/handbook/trueos.html
用户论坛:https://discourse.trueos.org/


免费开源 UNIX 操作系统 TrueOS-Desktop-17.12(基于 FreeBSD 12.0-CURRENT ——> FreeBSD 12.0 分支的一个开发实验版本),
稳定版 ( STABLE ) 每隔 6 个月发布一次软件更新,其 FreeBSD 基础系统安全更新随时发布,不稳定版(UNSTABLE)随时发布软件更新和 FreeBSD 基础系统安全更新,
TrueOS 一些功能很独特,如 启动环境,系统快照与恢复,ZFS 文件系统,支持 GELI 整块硬磁盘加密(包括启动分区都是加密的,真正的全盘加密),防火墙:IPFW(默认),PF(可选),默认 Lumina 桌面环境,
TrueOS 为滚动式发布(Rolling-release),(TrueOS follows FreeBSD-CURRENT),


几个安全好用的 Linux / UNIX 操作系统 —— 应用比较


« 最后编辑时间: 四月 10, 2018, 06:26:44 am 作者 jingyue »

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TrueOS-Desktop-18.03 安装 wine ,

终端命令,
引用
# pkg search wine

引用
# pkg install i386-wine-3.0,1

« 最后编辑时间: 四月 01, 2018, 07:28:41 am 作者 jingyue »

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TrueOS-Desktop-18.03 安装 fcitx 简体中文输入法框架,

终端命令,

1,搜索关键词 fcitx,
引用
# pkg search fcitx


2,安装 sunpinyin 简体中文输入法,
引用
# pkg install zh-fcitx-sunpinyin-0.4.1


3,推荐安装 fcitx-qt5 支持,

(注意:从 TrueOS-Desktop-17.12 更新升级到 18.03 版本的用户,也必需安装这个软件包,)否则 fcitx 中文输入法在桌面终端或记事本文件那里不可用,
引用
# pkg install fcitx-qt5-1.2.2


4,建议安装 fcitx 图形设置界面,
引用
# pkg install zh-fcitx-configtool-0.4.8

« 最后编辑时间: 四月 01, 2018, 08:12:15 am 作者 jingyue »

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简体中文 Lumina 1.4.1 桌面下,可用的应用软件,
« 回复 #3 于: 六月 04, 2017, 06:31:08 pm »
UNIX 操作系统 TrueOS-Desktop-17.12(基于 FreeBSD 12.0-CURRENT),

简体中文 Lumina 1.4.1 桌面下,可用的应用软件:( 这里仅列出一部分 )

PGP 加密/解密,PGP签名/签名验证:gpa ,
PGP 加密/解密,PGP签名/签名验证: kgpg,

屏幕截图软件: ksnapshot,
图片浏览软件:mirage,
图像处理软件:GIMP 2.8.22

杀毒软件:clamtk,
解决clamtk中文界面乱码问题:暂时可使用英文界面,( 这应该是软件包的问题,因为在 FreeBSD 11.1-RELEASE 也有同样的问题,)
引用
# rm -r /usr/local/share/locale/zh_CN/LC_MESSAGES/clamtk.mo

媒体播放器:vlc,( Lumina桌面已经自带 )

文件批量重命名:krename,

简体中文输入法:ibus 或 fcitx ,/  拼音,双拼,五笔拼音,sunpinyin,

办公软件:libreoffice,

进程查看器:htop,

压缩/解压软件:p7zip,(7z)命令行,
引用
~% 7z a -t7z xxx.zip xxxxx.txt

引用
~% 7z e xx.zip


下载工具:aria2,(aria2c)命令行,
下载工具:wget 命令行,

浏览器:火狐浏览器 firefox,
windows 模拟器:wine

防火墙 : ipfw ( Lumina桌面已经默认安装且设置在防护状态 )
查看 ipfw 防火墙规则及拦截和允许通过的数据包:
引用
# ipfw -a list

PDF 文档浏览工具:okular,
磁盘文件分布统计管理工具:filelight,

PDF 文档浏览工具 , ( Lumina桌面已经自带一个 )
屏幕截图软件, ( Lumina桌面已经自带一个 )
压缩/解压软件, ( Lumina桌面已经自带一个 )

windows 模拟器: playonbsd ( 可以安装游戏 ,安装微软的 office 2003 /  office 2007  等等 )

虚拟机软件:virtualbox,

光盘编辑软件:isomaster,
光盘刻录软件:xfburn,

查看U盘或移动硬盘的格式化类型:disktype,

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

以上软件,用户可根据需要,用 [ 终端 ] 命令在线搜索和安装,

以上软件,用户也可以在 "控制面板" 那里搜索和安装软件,无需使用 [ 终端 ] 命令,适合新手,

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

TrueOS-Desktop-17.12上面,虽然有自动挂载 U 盘的功能,但是不支持中文名字的文件名,

用下面这个命令挂载 FAT32 格式的 U 盘可显示中文文件名,(否则中文文件的名字都显示为 ?????? 问号,)

# mount_msdosfs -L zh_CN.UTF-8 /dev/da1s1 /mnt

其中 /dev/da1s1 需查看U盘设备的具体显示名字而定,
# ls /dev

用命令拷贝中文名字的文件,
# cp xxx /mnt

用命令卸载,
# umount -f /mnt

« 最后编辑时间: 四月 01, 2018, 07:30:56 am 作者 jingyue »

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TrueOS-Desktop-18.3 桌面配置,
« 回复 #4 于: 八月 15, 2017, 06:44:40 am »
TrueOS-Desktop-18.3 文件夹的窗口及背景黑色的不好看,可以配置为其它方案,


1,更换壁纸,

TrueOS-Desktop-18.3 默认的壁纸黑色的不好看,可以更换为其它图片,(注:18.3 版本系统自带许多壁纸,这些图片文件存放在  /usr/local/share/wallpapers ),


2,更换窗口主题,

鼠标展开右键 ——> 首选项 ——> 所有桌面设置 ——> 窗口管理器 ——> 窗口主题 ——> 可选 seldom 或 brownles 或 kiwi 或 dust1.3


3,更换桌面主题,

鼠标展开右键 ——> 首选项 ——> 所有桌面设置 ——> 主题 ——> General     
                                                                                                                                                   
                                                                                                                       Style: ——> Fusion         
                                                                                                                       Custom
                                                                                                                       Color scheme: ——> airy
                                                                                                                       Preview  ——> Active palette
                                                                                           
鼠标展开右键 ——> 首选项 ——> 所有桌面设置 ——> 主题 ——> Icons ——> Adwaita

« 最后编辑时间: 四月 09, 2018, 09:25:48 pm 作者 jingyue »

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What is the difference between STABLE and UNSTABLE?(稳定版与不稳定版有何不同?)

    STABLE:(稳定版)
    This is the static release branch of TrueOS and has a 6-month lifetime between updates. It has a higher level of testing and quality-assurance checks to ensure a higher level of reliability for it’s 6-month lifespan.
    IMPORTANT NOTE: This means that applications and utilities will not receive updates to newer versions during the 6-month period.

    UNSTABLE:(不稳定版)
    This is the rolling-release branch of TrueOS where updates are regularly pushed out every week or two (sometimes multiple times a week - depends on many factors). It will generally have a lower level of manual testing (especially for 3rd-party applications and packages), but ensures that newer versions of FreeBSD and 3rd-party applications are available in a timely manner.

    Switching between branches(稳定版与不稳定版版本之间的切换)
        [Command Line](通过终端命令行切换)
        Edit the “/usr/local/etc/trueos.conf” file and change the “PACKAGE_SET:” option to either “STABLE” or “UNSTABLE”. After that, run pc-updatemanager syncconf to automatically push any changes to your other package config settings, and then run pc-updatemanager pkgupdate to begin downloading/staging the updates. Run pc-updatemanager startupdate to restart the system and perform the updates once the staging procedures are completed.
        [Graphical](通过有图形界面的管理工具切换)
        Open up the Control Panel -> Update Manager, then go to the “Settings” tab and select the branch that you would like to move to. Click “Save Settings” to apply that change, then go to the “Updates” tab and start the probe/staging of updates. When the updates are staged, follow the prompt to restart the system to apply the updates.

原文连接 https://discourse.trueos.org/t/trueos-tips-tricks-and-faq/2081/4

beanpole135 [CORE] TrueOS Developer2017-12-01 14:07:24 UTC #4

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

TrueOS Stable (Current Release: 17.12)

Long term release track with a 6-month update schedule. Most 3rd-party packages are effectively “locked” at the same version until the next release, resulting in a very stable user experience. Security updates for the base system will still be released as needed.


TrueOS Unstable

Rolling-release track. This integrates the absolute latest in FreeBSD development. This includes package changes, bugfixes, and experimental features which may result in irregular behavior of 3rd-party packages.


参考链接 https://download.trueos.org/

« 最后编辑时间: 十二月 17, 2017, 06:19:53 am 作者 jingyue »

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Re: UNIX 操作系统 TrueOS-Desktop 稳定版手动更新方法
« 回复 #6 于: 十二月 15, 2017, 03:21:26 am »
TrueOS 稳定版的用户,可以直接在线更新到最新稳定版,

手动更新:(也可以设置为自动更新),

AppCafe ,

或 鼠标右键 ——>> 应用程序 ——>> 管理应用  ——>> Control Panel(控制面板) ——>> Update Manager (更新管理器) ——>> Settings (设置) ——>> STABLE Repository (稳定版的软件源) ——>> Save Settings(保存设置) ——>> Updates (更新) ——>> Check For Updates (核对软件包并更新)

从TrueOS-Desktop-201706210948 稳定版在线更新到最新稳定版TrueOS-Desktop-201712111405 成功,

更新之前,
引用
~% about

===================
General information
===================

OS git branch ……………………………………………………………………………………… trueos-stable
OS git revision ………………………………………………………………………………… ac2f0aa3b
OS kernel build time ………………………………………………………… Wed 2017 Jun 21 01:09:23 UTC
OS kernel identity …………………………………………… (uname -i) GENERIC
OS platform (architecture) ……………………… (uname -m) amd64
OS release level ………………………………………………… (uname -r) 12.0-CURRENT
OS version and patch level …… (freebsd-version) 12.0-CURRENT
TrueOS package set ………………… STABLE
TrueOS version …………………………… TrueOS-Desktop-201706210948

更新之后,
引用
~% about

===================
General information
===================

OS git branch ……………………………………………………………………………………… trueos-stable-17.12
OS git revision ………………………………………………………………………………… d26791952
OS kernel build time ………………………………………………………… Sat 2017 Dec 9 18:10:09 UTC
OS kernel identity …………………………………………… (uname -i) GENERIC
OS platform (architecture) ……………………… (uname -m) amd64
OS release level ………………………………………………… (uname -r) 12.0-CURRENT
OS version and patch level …… (freebsd-version) 12.0-CURRENT
TrueOS package set ………………… STABLE
TrueOS version …………………………… TrueOS-Desktop-201712111405

« 最后编辑时间: 十二月 17, 2017, 07:46:51 am 作者 jingyue »

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使用 FreeBSD 的公司和产品
« 回复 #7 于: 十二月 27, 2017, 06:18:25 am »
参考文档  https://web.trueos.org/wp-content/uploads/2017/10/Open-Source-Talk.pdf

上面这篇PDF文档中介绍,苹果 iPhone手机操作系统 iOS,苹果笔记本电脑 MacBook Pro 操作系统 MacOS,端到端加密聊天软件 Whatsapp(支持 Android 和 iPhone 手机)服务器交换平台,( Whatsapp 目前在中国大陆已经被封锁),麦咖啡的企业级防火墙产品,TrueOS 操作系统,等等,都使用 FreeBSD,
引用
Companies and Products Using FreeBSD

● Apple’s iOS, and MacOS
● Microsoft Azure
● Juniper Networks Junos
● Nintendo Switch
● Playstation 3, 4, and Vita
● Netflix (Servers)
● Panasonic Televisions
● McAffee SecurOS
● Whatsapp
● Trivago
● iXsystems FreeNAS and TrueNAS
● TrueOS ( Our Project ! )

参考 FreeBSD 官方文档:
https://www.freebsd.org/doc/handbook/nutshell.html
引用
1.2.2. Who Uses FreeBSD?

FreeBSD's advanced features, proven security, predictable release cycle, and permissive license have led to its use as a platform for building many commercial and open source appliances, devices, and products. Many of the world's largest IT companies use FreeBSD:

    Apple - OS X borrows heavily from FreeBSD for the network stack, virtual file system, and many userland components. Apple iOS also contains elements borrowed from FreeBSD.

    Cisco - IronPort network security and anti-spam appliances run a modified FreeBSD kernel.

    McAfee - SecurOS, the basis of McAfee enterprise firewall products including Sidewinder is based on FreeBSD.

    WhatsApp - When WhatsApp needed a platform that would be able to handle more than 1 million concurrent TCP connections per server, they chose FreeBSD. They then proceeded to scale past 2.5 million connections per server.


« 最后编辑时间: 十二月 28, 2017, 03:50:52 am 作者 jingyue »

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在 UNIX 操作系统 TrueOS-Desktop-18.03 (基于 FreeBSD 12.0-CURRENT)上面运行 chromium-63.0.3239.132 浏览器通过自由门 fg764p.exe 翻墙成功,

1,安装 chromium 浏览器
引用
# pkg update

引用
# pkg search chromium
chromium-63.0.3239.132         Google web browser based on WebKit

引用
# pkg install chromium-63.0.3239.132

引用
# echo "sysctl kern.ipc.shm_allow_removed=1" >> /etc/sysctl.conf


2,使用:

1)用 wine 运行自由门 fg764p.exe 成功找到服务器,

2)用终端命令运行 chromium 浏览器,通过本地代理 127.0.0.1:8580 翻墙上网,
引用
~% chrome --proxy-server="127.0.0.1:8580"

3)直接在 chromium 浏览器地址栏里输入网址,如,动态网 www.dongtaiwang.com 即可,

~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~

谷歌 chromium 浏览器可以自动把英文网页直接在线翻译成简体中文网页,

如果通过无界浏览代理上网,终端命令:
引用
~% chrome --proxy-server="127.0.0.1:9666"

« 最后编辑时间: 四月 04, 2018, 12:50:25 am 作者 jingyue »

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下面选用一个网友对 TrueOS-Desktop-17.12 版本的差评,仅供参考,
原文地址在这个网页上:
 https://distrowatch.com/table.php?distribution=trueos
引用
Version: 17.12
Rating: 3
Date: 2017-12-24
Votes: 2

Pretty buggy at this stage.
Often times updates will prevent system from booting until you rollback.
Many services simply do no start or start intermitantly.
Does not run as smoothly as FreeBSD on which it is based. Including freezing the mouse at times.
There is no stable. Both stable and unstable are very bleeding edge. And the next stable introduces a bunch of new bugs.



« 最后编辑时间: 四月 10, 2018, 06:21:15 am 作者 jingyue »

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UNIX 操作系统 TrueOS 的一篇评论,
« 回复 #10 于: 三月 16, 2018, 08:05:21 pm »
TrueOS 8个月的使用印象 (谷歌翻译,误差较大,仅供参考,)

8 months with TrueOS

原文链接网址 https://inflo.ws/blog/post/2018-03-03-trueos-8th-month-review/

trueos bsd

这篇评论的目的 - 它是什么,什么不是。

如果我已经达到了六个月的使用标准,我发誓要写下我对TrueOS的看法。 就是这样。 这既不是教程,也不是献身于此的传福音。

这也不是对诸如Lumina或AppCafe之类的TrueOS的特定部分的评论,因为我根本不使用它们。

本着呈现屏幕截图的精神,这里是我的i3wm在一个屏幕上显示4个窗口 - 这是我从不使用的配置。

我用电脑完成的主要任务。

我需要一个多桌面功能的平铺WM。至于我用计算机做什么,描述我是否列举了我最常用的应用程序非常简单。

    xterm(CLI)
    Emacs(常规编辑和组织模式)
    Intellij IDEA(Java,Kotlin,SQL)
    Firefox(主网页浏览器,带多帐户容器)
    雷鸟(工作电子邮件)
    Notmuchmail(个人电子邮件)
    铬/铱(哑网页浏览器)
    电报桌面
    weechat(与小松弛)
    cmus(音乐播放器)
    mpv(视频播放器)
    mps-youtube(Youtube客户端)
    传输GTK
    Postgresql10(守护进程)
    Rabbitmq(守护进程)
    Seafile(文件同步)
    Shotwell(管理图片)
    GIMP(编辑图片)
    Calibre(管理电子书)
    VirtualBox的

所有这些都可以从存储库以二进制包的形式获得。由于我使用Intellij Ultimate版本,因此我决定从网站下载no-jdk linux版本,而不是安装它。这将确保它定期更新。

我为什么选择TrueOS?

从2001年一直到2009年,我都运行了各种Linux发行版,直到我发现了Arch,并一直持续到2017年。在切换到TrueOS之前,我试用了两个月的Void。

在过去的几年里,我开始感觉到无论我接触哪种Linux发行版,他们都停止了非常有意义的事情。一般情况下,组织的方式,特别是像systemd这样的软件方面,这些软件只是推下了我的喉咙。我无法将自己的头围绕在计算机中正在进行的一半事情上。

大多数情况下,我发现Linux发行版已经停止成为一系列应用程序,这些应用程序一起发展到像systemd这样的软件机制,并且这个过程越来越不透明。我不想谈论systemd的优点和缺点,只要说我发现它没有用处和不必要的麻烦。

二月份,我发现自己负责一家公司的整个技术体系,我可以自由选择。一位长期使用FreeBSD用户的朋友说服我在服务器上试用它。我的要求是运行Postgres,Rabbitmq,Nginx和几个JVM进程。该设置是零麻烦,并没有改变一年。

在服务器上运行大约三个月的FreeBSD-11.x足以让我考虑为我的笔记本电脑。我非常担心硬件支持,但幸运的是我的电脑是Thinkpad,Thinkpad和各种BSD一起开箱即用。

我的一般要求是

    必须运行Intellij IDEA。
    必须有适当的图形和声音驱动程序支持。
    必须能够运行VirtualBox。

我必须从FreeBSD,NetBSD和OpenBSD中选择,因为这些是我熟悉的主要BSD。我的一个要求是我需要能够运行虚拟机,以防我需要在Windows / Linux上测试某些东西。这排除了OpenBSD。然后我留下了NetBSD和FreeBSD。 NetBSD的驱动程序支持更新的英特尔芯片组是有问题的,而FreeBSD是唯一的选择。

当我通过FreeBSD论坛进行挖掘时,发现在我的笔记本电脑上运行11.x RELEASE是不可能的,因为它没有适合我的芯片组的驱动程序。

再过几个小时的挖掘让我转向了GhostBSD和TrueOS。我之所以选择TrueOS是因为 - 因为TrueOS来自旧的PC-BSD,它是在集成了最新驱动的FreeBSD-12-CURRENT的基础上构建的。

我下载了2017年6月发布的UNSTABLE版本,备份了我的所有数据和主目录,然后安装了它。在安装过程中没有出现故障 - 我只需按照手册中的描述进行安装,一切都很好。

我从Arch / Void到TrueOS的整个切换花费了大约一个小时,折扣了将数据备份到外部硬盘所用的时间。这很简单。我想要工作的每件事都可以工作,所有事情都可以在回购协议中找到。
来自cooltrainer.org的调整

我发现了这篇( 链接地址 https://cooltrainer.org/a-freebsd-desktop-howto/ )介绍设置FreeBSD 11桌面的优秀教程。它记录了几个有用的调整,其中一些是我应用的。几个例子 - 字体,VirtualBox,防火墙,UTF-8部分。

TrueOS(和FreeBSD)特定的东西我喜欢

开放式RC

open-rc init系统很熟悉,并且有很好的文档记录。

TrueOS特定部分在这里描述。

当我安装postgresql10-server时,没有open-rc脚本,但是我可以在两个小时内拼凑一个,并且以前没有编写init脚本的经验。后来我发现postgresql9的初始化脚本也可以用于10,并使用它。

引导环境

这对我来说是一个外星人的概念,但是我第一次在没有等待CDN同步完成的情况下进行更新时,我的计算机启动进入外壳并保留在那里。 TrueOS话语中的友善人士要求我回滚到较早的BE,并等待同步完成。

我通过论坛挖掘并发现了TrueFS新用户的“ZFS /快照基础知识和操作指南”。这描述了ZFS和BE,非常值得一读。

ZFS

我的启动环境经验足以让我相信ZFS的实用性。我仍在阅读有关内容并尝试解决问题,而我所读到的内容只是让我更加确信它为什么好。

文件系统布局

从Linux世界开始,FreeBSD文件系统的布局初看起来很奇怪。

然后我意识到这是Linux发行者做的奇怪事情。

例如:整个操作系统分为基本系统和应用程序。所有非基础系统配置和应用程序都将进入/ usr / local。这很有道理。

整个操作系统是作为一个单一的连贯实体与其应用程序一起开发的,并显示出来。

文档

TrueOS和FreeBSD的手册都非常棒。例如,我将一些文件保存在LUKS加密驱动器中(当我使用Arch Linux时)。为了找到相同的东西,我只需要阅读手册并查看GELI部分。

实际上,能够像Handbook这样的来源以及来自那里的东西只是工作而已。

如果有人想知道Linux发行版,Arch Linux和Gentoo也有很好的文档。

社区

Telegram以及Discourse上的TrueOS社区都非常友好和耐心。当我提出非常愚蠢的问题时,他们帮助了很多人,不会感到不安。 TrueOS核心开发人员也在电报聊天室中闲聊,并且能够直接与他们谈论事情真是太好了。

什么在TrueOS中不起作用?

在我的Linux任职期间工作的以下内容在TrueOS中不起作用。

    Netflix公司
    Google环聊
    基于电子的应用(Slack,Skype)

这些并不是我所做的工作的主要关注点,所以它不会让我感到困扰。我运行一个WinXP虚拟机来玩一些老游戏,以及一个用于Linux环境/ Netflix的Bunsenlabs安装。

我在TrueOS中没有视频呼叫系统设置,因为我只用手机进行语音和视频通话。

我为什么留在TrueOS上?

伟大的社区 - 无论是在话语还是电报频道,人们都会让你感到受欢迎。如果事情没有得到答复,有人会答应对其进行处理/提出错误/建议解决方法。

切换到TrueOS也是哲学 - 我想了解更多关于许可证的内容,而且我得出的结论是我喜欢BSD而不是GPL。我相信这是一个更实用的许可证。

我相信TrueOS正在不断改进,如果你花一些时间,它是一个很棒的桌面UNIX。

©2017-2018,保留所有权利。


原文(有图片)链接 https://inflo.ws/blog/post/2018-03-03-trueos-8th-month-review/

8 months with TrueOS
trueos   bsd   

Purpose of this review - what it is and what it is not.

I vowed to write down what I felt about TrueOS if I ever got to the six month mark of usage. This is just that. This is neither a tutorial, nor a piece of evangelism dedicated towards it.

This is also not a review of specific parts of TrueOS such as Lumina or AppCafe, since I don't use them at all.

In the spirit of presenting a screen shot, here is my i3wm displaying 4 windows in one screen - a configuration that I never use.

The primary tasks I get done with my computer.

I need a tiling wm with multi-desktop capability. As regards what I do with a computer, it is fairly straightforward to describe if I just list down my most frequently used applications.

    xterm (CLI)
    Emacs (General editing and org mode)
    Intellij IDEA (Java, Kotlin, SQL)
    Firefox (Main web browser, with Multi-Account Containers)
    Thunderbird (Work e-mail)
    Notmuchmail (Personal e-mail)
    Chromium/Iridium (Dumb web browers)
    Telegram Desktop
    weechat (with wee-slack)
    cmus (Music player)
    mpv (Video player)
    mps-youtube (Youtube client)
    transmission-gtk
    Postgresql10 (daemon)
    Rabbitmq (daemon)
    Seafile (file sync)
    Shotwell (manage pictures)
    GIMP (Edit pictures)
    Calibre (Manage e-books)
    VirtualBox

All of these are available as binary packages from the repository. Since I use Intellij Ultimate edition, I decided to download the no-jdk linux version from the website rather than install it. This would make sure that it gets updated regularly.

Why did I pick TrueOS ?

I ran various Linux distributions from 2001 all the way till 2009, till I discovered Arch, and continued with it till 2017. I tried out Void for two months before I switched to TrueOS.

Over the last few years, I started feeling like no matter which Linux distribution I touched, they all just stopped making a lot of sense. Generally in the way things were organised, and particularly in terms of software like systemd, which just got pushed down my throat. I couldn't wrap my head around half the things going on in my computer.

Mostly I found that Linux distributions stopped becoming a collection of applications that got developed together to something more coupled by software mechanisms like systemd - and that process was more and more opaque. I don't want to talk about the merits and de-merits of systemd, lets just say that I found it of no use and an unnecessary hassle.

In February, I found myself in charge of the entire technology stack of a company, and I was free to make choices. A friend who was a long time FreeBSD user convinced me to try it on the servers. My requirement then was to run Postgres, Rabbitmq, Nginx and a couple of JVM processes. The setup was zero hassle and it hasn't changed much in a year.

About three months of running FreeBSD-11.x on servers was enough for me to consider it for my laptop. I was very apprehensive of hardware support, but luckily my computer is a Thinkpad, and Thinkpads sort of work out of the box with various BSDs.

My general requirements were

    Must run Intellij IDEA.
    Must have proper graphics and sound driver support.
    Must be able to run VirtualBox.

I had to pick from FreeBSD, NetBSD and OpenBSD, since these were the major BSDs that I was familiar with. One of my requirements was that I needed to be able to run VMs just in case I needed to test something on Windows/Linux. This ruled out OpenBSD. Then I was left with NetBSD and FreeBSD. NetBSD's driver support for newer Intel chip-sets were questionable, and FreeBSD was the only choice then.

When I was digging through FreeBSD forums, I found out that running the 11.x RELEASE on my laptop was out of the question since it didn't have proper drivers for my chip-set either.

A few more hours of digging led me to GhostBSD and TrueOS. I picked TrueOS straightaway because - well because TrueOS came from the old PC-BSD and it was built off FreeBSD-12-CURRENT with the latest drivers integrated.

I downloaded the UNSTABLE version available in June 2017, backed up ALL my data and home directory, and then installed it. There were no glitches during installation - I simply followed the installation as described in the handbook and everything was fine.

My entire switch from Arch/Void to TrueOS took about an hour, discounting the time it took to backup my data to an external hard disk. It was that easy. Everything I wanted to work just worked, everything was available in the repo.
Tweaks from cooltrainer.org

I discovered this excellent tutorial that describes setting up a FreeBSD 11 desktop( https://cooltrainer.org/a-freebsd-desktop-howto/ ). It documents several useful tweaks, some of which I applied. A few examples - Fonts, VirtualBox, Firewall, UTF-8 sections.

TrueOS (and FreeBSD) specific things I liked

Open-rc

The open-rc init system is familiar and is well documented.

TrueOS specific parts are described here.

When I installed postgresql10-server, there was no open-rc script for it, but I could cobble one together in two hours with zero prior experience writing init scripts. Later on I figured out that the init script for postgresql9 would work for 10 as well, and used that.

Boot Environments

This was an alien concept to me, but the first time I did an update without waiting for a CDN sync to finish, my computer booted into the shell and remained there. The friendly people at TrueOS discourse asked me to roll back to an older BE and wait for sync to finish.

I dug through the forums and found "ZFS / Snapshots basics & How-To’s for those new to TrueOS". This describes ZFS and BEs, and is well worth reading.

ZFS

My experience with boot environments was enough to convince me about the utility of ZFS. I am still reading about it and trying things out, and whatever I read just convinces me more about why it is good.
File-system layout

Coming from the Linux world, how the FreeBSD file-system is laid out seemed odd at first.

Then I realised that it was the Linux distros that were doing the odd thing.

e.g : The whole OS is split into base system and applications. All the non base system configurations and apps go into /usr/local. That made a lot of sense.

The entire OS is developed along with its applications as a single coherent entity, and that shows.

Documentation

The handbooks for both TrueOS and FreeBSD are really really good. For e.g, I kept some files in an LUKS encrypted drive (when I used Arch Linux). To find an equivalent, all I had to do was read the handbook and look at the GELI section.

It is actually nice being able to go to a source like Handbook and things from there just work.

Arch Linux and Gentoo has excellent documentation as well, if anyone is wondering about Linux distros.

Community

The TrueOS community on both Telegram as well as on Discourse are very friendly and patient. They help out a lot and do not get upset when I pose really stupid questions. TrueOS core developers hangout in the Telegram chat-room too, and it is nice being able to talk to them directly about things.

What did not work in TrueOS ?

The following things that worked during my Linux tenure doesn't work in TrueOS.

    Netflix
    Google Hangouts
    Electron based applications (Slack, Skype)

These are not major concerns for the kind of work I do, so it doesn't bother me much. I run a WinXP VM to play some old games, and a Bunsenlabs installation for Linux things like Hangouts/Netflix.

I don't have a video calling system setup in TrueOS because I use my phone for both voice and video calls exclusively.

Why am I staying on TrueOS ?

Great community - whether on Discourse or on the telegram channel, the people make you feel welcome. If things go unanswered, someone will promise to work on it/file a bug/suggest work-arounds.

Switching to TrueOS was philosophical as well - I thought a lot more about licenses, and I have arrived at the conclusion that I like BSD more than GPL. I believe it is a more practical license.

I believe TrueOS is improving continuously, and is a great desktop UNIX if you put some time into it.

© 2017-2018, all rights reserved.

« 最后编辑时间: 三月 16, 2018, 09:02:09 pm 作者 jingyue »

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TrueOS-Desktop-18.03 发布
« 回复 #11 于: 三月 30, 2018, 08:08:07 am »
TrueOS 稳定版 18.03 发布 ,(谷歌翻译,仅供参考,)


由 Ken Moore | 2018年3月30日 | 公告,TrueOS 更新| 0 评论


TrueOS团队很高兴地宣布TrueOS项目(版本18.03)的新版STABLE版本的发布。这是自2018年初以来影响计算世界的安全问题的特别版本。特别是,缓解“崩溃”和“幽灵”系统漏洞使得有必要更新TrueOS的整个软件包生态系统。此发行版不会取代预定的6月STABLE更新,但会为TrueOS的STABLE发行版分支提供必要的和预期的安全更新,即使这是通过正常发行周期的一部分。

版本17.12和18.03之间的重要变化

    “崩溃”安全修复程序:此版本包含对FreeBSD的所有修复,这可以缓解运行虚拟机(如FreeBSD jail)时利用基于Intel处理器的系统的安全问题。请注意,虚拟机或监狱也必须更新为包含这些安全修复程序的FreeBSD或TrueOS版本。
    “Spectre”安全缓解:此版本包含FreeBSD HEAD针对Specter内存隔离攻击(变体2)的所有缓解措施。此版本的所有第三方软件包也都使用LLVM / Clang 6(“retpoline”缓解策略)进行编译。这修复了许多内存分配问题,并对应用程序中的代码完整性和内存使用情况施加了更严格的要求。不幸的是,由于不符合这些更新的标准,一些第三方应用程序由于预编译的软件包而变得不可用。这些应用程序目前正在由上游作者或FreeBSD端口维护者修复。如果对特定工作流的关键应用程序的可用性有任何疑虑,请搜索TrueOS 17.12和18.03之间的软件包更改日志以验证应用程序的状态。

 
大多数系统都需要微码更新以实现额外的Spectre缓解。微码更新默认不启用。这项工作被认为是实验性的,因为它正处于上游供应商的积极开发之中。如果需要,微码更新可用于Appcafe中提供的新devcpu-data包。安装此软件包并启用新的microcode_update服务以在引导系统时应用最新的运行时代码。

重要的基于安全的软件包更新

        LibreSSL从版本2.6.3 - > 2.6.4更新
            提醒:在TrueOS上使用LibreSSL来构建任何不明确需要OpenSSL的软件包。所有利用SSL传输层的应用程序现在都在运行最新的安全更新。

        浏览器更新:(请记住,许多浏览器在Spectre漏洞利用后也实施了自己的安全缓解措施。)
            Firefox:57.0.1 - > 58.0.2
            铬:61.0.3163.100 - > 63.0.3239.132
            Qt5 Webengine(QupZilla,Falkon等):5.7.1 - > 5.9.4

 
    除非软件包明确要求使用GCC,否则此版本的所有预编译软件包均使用最新版本的LLVM / Clang构建。这些软件包还利用最新的编译时缓解措施来解决内存访问安全问题。

 
套餐于17.12至18.03之间更改

套餐变更摘要:

    新软件包:2461
    已移除的软件包:829
    更新的软件包:2984
    (在这里查看完整列表)

 
有关包统计的说明:

    一些在版本之间重新命名的软件包(如KDE4软件包)将同时出现在已删除列表(旧名称)和新列表(新名称)上。
    许多新软件包是基于Python的端口激活的新“风味”系统的结果。这些应用程序中的许多现在有两个可用的包,一个用于Python 2.7(py27- *),一个用于Python 3.6(py36- *)。
    更新的软件包列表不包括次要的端口修订更改。该列表仅包含在应用程序的上游版本中进行了实际更改的包。


原文链接 https://www.trueos.org/blog/trueos-stable-18-03-release/

TrueOS STABLE 18.03 Release

by Ken Moore | Mar 30, 2018 | Announcements, TrueOS Update | 0 comments

The TrueOS team is pleased to announce the availability of a new STABLE release of the TrueOS project (version 18.03). This is a special release due to the security issues impacting the computing world since the beginning of 2018. In particular, mitigating the “Meltdown” and “Spectre” system exploits make it necessary to update the entire package ecosystem for TrueOS. This release does not replace the scheduled June STABLE update, but provides the necessary and expected security updates for the STABLE release branch of TrueOS, even though this is part-way through our normal release cycle.

Important changes between version 17.12 and 18.03

    “Meltdown” security fixes: This release contains all the fixes to FreeBSD which mitigate the security issues for systems that utilize Intel-based processors when running virtual machines such as FreeBSD jails. Please note that virtual machines or jails must also be updated to a version of FreeBSD or TrueOS which contains these security fixes.
    “Spectre” security mitigations: This release contains all current mitigations from FreeBSD HEAD for the Spectre memory-isolation attacks (Variant 2). All 3rd-party packages for this release are also compiled with LLVM/Clang 6 (the “retpoline” mitigation strategy). This fixes many memory allocation issues and enforces stricter requirements for code completeness and memory usage within applications. Unfortunately, some 3rd-party applications became unavailable as pre-compiled packages due to non-compliance with these updated standards. These applications are currently being fixed either by the upstream authors or the FreeBSD port maintainers. If there are any concerns about the availability of a critical application for a specific workflow, please search through the changelog of packages between TrueOS 17.12 and 18.03 to verify the status of the application.

 
Most systems will need microcode updates for additional Spectre mitigations. The microcode updates are not enabled by default. This work is considered experimental because it is in active development by the upstream vendors. If desired, the microcode updates are available with the new devcpu-data package, which is available in the Appcafe. Install this package and enable the new microcode_update service to apply the latest runtime code when booting the system.

Important security-based package updates

        LibreSSL is updated from version 2.6.3 -> 2.6.4
            Reminder: LibreSSL is used on TrueOS to build any package which does not explicitly require OpenSSL. All applications that utilize the SSL transport layer are now running with the latest security updates.

        Browser updates: (Keep in mind that many browsers have also implemented their own security mitigations in the aftermath of the Spectre exploit.)
            Firefox: 57.0.1 -> 58.0.2
            Chromium: 61.0.3163.100 -> 63.0.3239.132
            Qt5 Webengine (QupZilla, Falkon, many others): 5.7.1 -> 5.9.4

 
    All pre-compiled packages for this release are built with the latest versions of LLVM/Clang, unless the package explicitly requires GCC. These packages also utilize the latest compile-time mitigations for memory-access security concerns.

 
Package changes between 17.12 and 18.03

Summary of Package Changes:

    New Packages: 2461
    Removed Packages: 829
    Updated Packages: 2984
    (View the full list here)

 
Notes about package statistics:

    Some packages that have been renamed between releases (like the KDE4 packages) will appear on both the removed list (old name) and the new list (new name) simultaneously.
    Many of the new packages are the result of the new “flavor” system being activated for Python based ports. Many of these applications now have two packages available, one for Python 2.7 (py27-*) and one for Python 3.6 (py36-*).
    The updated packages list does not include minor port revision changes. The list only contains packages that had an actual change in the upstream version of the application.

« 最后编辑时间: 三月 30, 2018, 06:01:43 pm 作者 jingyue »